Atomic Theory

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by admin last modified 2022-09-18T09:24:49+00:00

State the modern atomic theory and learn how atoms are constructed.

Questions #: 45
Time: 15 minutes
Pass Score: 80.0%
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The smallest piece of an element that maintains the ________ of that element is called an atom

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Individual atoms can be seen to the naked eyes

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It would take millions of atoms to make a line which visible and measurable

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modern atomic theory founder

The concept that atoms play a fundamental role in chemistry is formalized by the modern atomic theory, first stated by John Dalton, an English scientist, in 1808.

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The modern atomic theory consists of

All matter is composed of atoms
Atoms of the same element are the same; atoms of different elements are different
Atoms combine in whole-number ratios to form compounds
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The word atom comes from a Greek word that means indivisible

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Atoms are composed of smaller parts called

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The subatomic parts inside the atoms are

electron
proton
neutron
ziatron
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Assign symbols often used to each subatomic particle

  1. (1) transparent electron
  2. (2) transparent proton
  3. (3) transparent neutron
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p+
n0
e-
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A proton is larger in size (more massive) than electron

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The neutron is a subatomic particle with about the same mass as a proton

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Properties of the Three Subatomic Particles

Read the table and assign the name based on properties

Name Symbol Mass (approx; kg) charge
(1) transparent p+ 1.6 x 10-27 1+
(2) transparent n, n0 1.6 x 10-27 none
(3) transparent e- 9.1 x 10-31 1-

 

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Proton
Electron
Neutron
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Sub-particles in the atom are arranged at random

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Experiments by Ernest Rutherford in England in the 1910s pointed to a nuclear model of the atom

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Atom structure and behavior

The relatively massive protons and neutrons are collected in the (1) transparent of an atom, in a region called the (2) transparent of the atom (plural nuclei). The electrons are (3) transparent the nucleus and spend their time (4) transparent in space about the (5) transparent

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center
nucleus
outside
inside
orbiting
doing nothing
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The modern atomic theory

The modern atomic theory states that atoms of one element and different elements are the same

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What makes atoms of different elements different?

The fundamental characteristic that all atoms of the same element share is the number of

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protons
neutrons
electrons
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Different atoms of hydrogen have one or more than one proton in the nucleus

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All atoms of iron have 26 protons in the nucleus

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Hydrogen and iron atomic numbers

Hydrogen has an atomic number of , while iron has an atomic number of

(type in numbers only)

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Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons

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Hydrogen deuterium and tritium

Most hydrogen atoms have a (1) transparent proton in their nucleus. However, a small number (about one in a million) of hydrogen atoms have a proton and a neutron in their nuclei. This particular isotope of hydrogen is called (2) transparent . A very rare form of hydrogen has one proton and two neutrons in the nucleus; this isotope of hydrogen is called (3) transparent .

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single
two
deuterium
tritium
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Overall charge

Neutral atoms have the same number of (1) transparent as they have (2) transparent , so their overall charge is (3) transparent

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electrons
protons
neutrons
zero
one
two
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A tiny subatomic particle with a negative charge is called _______

Missing
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A subatomic particle with a positive charge is called _______

Missing
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A subatomic particle with no charge is called _________

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The model of an atom that has the protons and neutrons in a central nucleus with the electrons in orbit about the nucleus

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The center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons is called _______

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The number of protons in an atom is called _________

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Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called __________

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The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus is called __________ of the isotope

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What are the atomic number and the mass number of carbon atoms?

The most common carbon atoms have six protons and six neutrons in their nuclei. What are the atomic number and the mass number of these carbon atoms?

Atomic number =

Mass number =

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What are the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope of uranium?

An isotope of uranium has an atomic number of 92 and a mass number of 235. What are the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of this atom?

  • Number of protons =
  • Number of neutrons =
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What are the atomic number and the mass number of a tin atom?

The number of protons in the nucleus of a tin atom is 50, while the number of neutrons in the nucleus is 68. What are the atomic number and the mass number of this isotope?

  • Atomic number =
  • Mass number =
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An _______ ________ is one- or two-letter representation of the name of an element

two words are missing

Missing
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Atomic symbol conventions

By convention, the first letter of an element’s symbol is always (1) transparent , while the second letter (if present) is (2) transparent

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capitalized
lowercase
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The elements are grouped together in a special chart called the _______ ________

Two words are missing

Missing
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The elements on the periodic table are listed in order of ________ atomic number

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You can use the periodic table to immediately identify metals and nonmetals

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Metals are in the upper right corner of the periodic table

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There is an easy way to represent isotopes using the atomic symbols

We use the construction

A
Z

where (1) transparent is the symbol of the element, (2) transparent is the mass number, and (3) transparent is the atomic number.

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X
A
Z
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For the isotope of carbon that has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, the symbol is

  1. 6  C 
    6
  2. 12 
    6
  3. 6  C 
    12

 

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What is the symbol for an isotope of uranium that has an atomic number of 92 and a mass number of 235?

  1. 92  U 
    92
  2. 235 
    92
  3. 92  U 
    235

 

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How many protons and neutrons are in the iron atom

  1. 56  Fe 
    26

This iron atom has protons and neutrons

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It is common to state the mass number after the name of an element to indicate a particular isotope

Carbon-12 represents an isotope of carbon with 6 (1) transparent and 6 (2) transparent , while uranium-238 is an isotope of uranium that has 146 (3) transparent

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protons
neutrons
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