Characteristics of the Database Approach

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by admin last modified 2022-08-30T00:04:34+00:00

Distinguishing the database approach from the much older approach of writing customized programs to access data stored in files

Questions #: 35
Time: 15 minutes
Pass Score: 80.0%
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In traditional file processing, each user defines and implements the files needed for a specific software application as part of programming the application

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The main characteristics of the database approach versus the file-processing approach are the following

Self-describing nature of a database system
Insulation between programs and data, and data abstraction
Support of multiple views of the data
Sharing of data and multiuser transaction processing
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The information stored in the catalog is called ______ and it describes the structure of the primary database

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Newer types of database systems, known as NOSQL systems, do not require meta-data

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The data in NOSQL systems is stored as self-describing data that includes the data item names and data values together in one structure

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A general-purpose DBMS software package is written for a specific database application

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The catalog is used by the DBMS software and also by database users who need information about the database structure

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A general-purpose DBMS software may not work equally well with different database applications

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Traditional file processing approach may entail the risk of changing all programs that access a file if the file structure is changed

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The structure of data files is stored in the DBMS catalog separately from the access programs which do not require changing access programs most of the time.

This is called program-data ____________

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Which one of these tables is likely to raise changes in its accessing programs?

  • (Table A) Student record structure definition in a traditional file process application
Date Item Name Starting Position in Record Length in Characters (bytes)

Name

1 30
Student_Number 31 4
Class 35 1
Major 36 4

 

  • (Table B) Student record structure definition in DBMS
Column_Name Data_type Belongs_to_Relation
Name Character(30) Student
Student_number Character(4) Student
Class Integer(1) Student
Major Major_type Student
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Examples of database types that allow operations on data as part of the database definitions

Object-oriented system
Object-relational system
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An operation in an object-oriented database is also called

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Operation interface

In an object-oriented database, an interface (or ) of an operation includes the operation name and the data types of its arguments (or parameters).

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Operation implementation

In object-oriented database, the implementation (or ) of the operation is specified separately and can be changed without affecting the interface.

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Program-operation independence

In object-oriented database, user application programs can operate on the data by invoking these operations through their names and (1) transparent , regardless of how the operations are implemented. This may be termed (2) transparent .

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arguments
program-operation independence
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The characteristic that allows program-data independence and program-operation independence is called

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A DBMS provides users with ________ representation of data hiding most of the storage and implementation details

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A type of data abstraction

A _________  model is a type of data abstraction that is used to provide a conceptual representation of data that does not include many of the details of how the data is stored or how the operations are implemented.

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A data model ________ storage and implementation details

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A typical database user is concerned with the location of each data item within a record or its length in a database system

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In the database approach, the detailed structure and organization of each file are stored in the _________

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Only one data model can be used to provide data abstraction to database users

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In object-oriented and object-relational databases, the abstraction process includes

the data structure
the operations on the data
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CALCULATE_GPA operation

A user using an object-oriented or object-relational database cares so much about the operation details of the CALCULATE_GPA operation over the STUDENT record

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Database Views

A perspective or a may be a of the database or it may contain that is derived from the database files but is not explicitly stored.

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view
virtual data
subset
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A multiuser DBMS whose users have a variety of distinct applications must provide facilities for defining multiple views

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A multiuser DBMS, as its name implies, must allow multiple users to access the database at the same time

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Moderating data access

The DBMS must include ___________ software to ensure that several users trying to update the same data do so in a controlled manner so that the result of the updates is correct.

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Seat reservation in an airline flight

Several reservation agents try to assign a seat on an airline flight, the DBMS should ensure that each seat can be accessed by _____________ for assignment to a passenger.

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OLTP applications

Multiuser DBMS software which ensures that concurrent transactions operate correctly and efficiently is generally called 

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Executing program or process

A _______  is an executing program or process that includes one or more database accesses, such as reading or updating of database records.

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The DBMS must enforce several transaction properties including

isolation
atomicity
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A DBMS property executing a transaction independently and safely

In DBMS, The _________ property ensures that each transaction appears to execute independently from other transactions, even though hundreds of transactions may be executing concurrently.

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The ___________ property ensures that either all the database operations in a transaction are executed or none are.

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