# History of Algebra

Algebra is one of the major branches of mathematics which was established by Muslim Arabs.

The Arabs discovered the science of algebra and worked with algebra and compiled in it in an organized scientific way, to the extent that Kaguri said: “The mind is amazed when it sees what the Arabs have done in algebra....”

And algebra is a branch of mathematics and the name of algebra came from the book of the Muslim mathematician, astronomer and traveler Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi (*The Short Book on Calculation of Algebra and Muqabala*), which presented the algebraic operations that organize finding solutions to linear and quadratic equations. The word (al-jabr) is taken from the Arabic language, and the meaning of the science of algebra in Al-Ma’ani Dictionary is: (a branch of mathematics that is based on the substitution of symbols for unknown or known numbers)

Algebra is one of the three main branches of mathematics in addition to geometry, mathematical analysis, number theory, permutations, and combinations. This science is concerned with the study of algebraic structures and symmetries between them, relationships and quantities.

Algebra is a broader and more comprehensive concept than arithmetic or elementary algebra. It not only deals with numbers, but also formulates deals with symbols, variables, and classes. Algebra formulates the axioms and relationships by which any phenomenon in the universe can be represented. Therefore, it is considered one of the basic principles of the methods of proof.

In 830 AD, the Arabs gave this name to the science of algebra for the first time. In Baghdad, al-Khwarizmi established algebra and al-Muqabala in the ninth century AD. Al-Khwarizmi's numerous works in arithmetic and in the field of algebra were the result of compiling and developing information that previously existed among the Greek scholars and arithmetic in India, so he gave it his own character of commitment to logic.

Algebra is an Arabic science that the Arabs called by a word from their language, and it was Al-Khwarizmi who called it by this name, which was transferred to European languages with the Arabic word ALGEBRA. This book was translated into Latin in 1135 AD. He continued to teach in European universities until the sixteenth century. The Arabic numerals were also transmitted to Europe through translations of Al-Khwarizmi’s books, which he called in Latin “Algorismo” and then modified Algorismo ALGORISMO to denote the number system, arithmetic, algebra and the method of solving arithmetic problems.

Translated from:

تاريخ الجبر History of Algebra